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Milgram Notes

Stanley Milgram

Milgram, Stanley. Behavioral Study of Obedience (1963).

Question?

How come would people obey a legitimate authority number even if these people were asked to perform something that was clearly and morally wrong?

Hypothesis

Milgram want to test the GADH (German's Are very different Hypothesis), that has been currently being used by historians to clarify the systematic destruction of millions of Jews, Poles and other's in the 1930's and 1940's.

This kind of hypothesis retains

• Hitler could not have got put his evil strategies into effect without the assistance of 1000s of others • The German's have a basic character problem, namely a readiness to obey unquestionably, regardless of the serves demanded by the authority determine. • Hitler needed this kind of readiness to obey to get his goal.

Milgram states:

" It has been reliably set up that from 1939 to 1945 a lot of innocent people were killed on command,; gas chambers had been built, death camps had been guarded, daily quotas of corpses were produced with all the same productivity as the manufacture of appliances. ”

Purpose of Yale Study

• His initial study in Yale University was designed as a preliminary run or possibly a control. • Results made a follow-up study in Germany unnecessary. • This individual predicted that he would possess very low numbers of obedience in america and very large ones in Germany.

Method/Design

The procedure requires a ‘teacher', a ‘learner' (a stooge or accomplice), and an authority determine (scientist). The teacher will perform a recollection test around the learner.

Method/Design

• 4: wrong answers by student пѓ DV: rate of obedience (up the volts ladder). • IV: prods and prompts by experimenter пѓ DV: rate of obedience • Could also be controlled observation study, since audio recorders, one way decorative mirrors and observers to make signifies were utilized? But it was not a natural placing. • Quantitative data: number of shocks, power of surprise level • Qualitative data: emotional responses to requests, post interviews, debriefing statements.

Method/Design

Individuals: • 40 males old 20 – 50 • Answered ads in magazines or flyers • Self volunteered to be within a Yale analyze for recollection and learning • Paid out $4. 55.

Procedure: • Greeted simply by " Jack Williams” a tech within a grey lab coat with clipboard. • Introduced to Mr. Wallace, the ‘learner' (stooge), he had appeared earlier. 47 years old, a great accountant

• Entire set was preplanned, staged and scripted except for responses from the ‘teacher'.

Method cont: • Title: The Effects of Punishment upon Learning. Behavioral Psychology – Stimulus пѓ response пѓ consequence пѓ behavior transform – Term pair пѓ wrong answer пѓ surprise пѓ decline in wrong answers – Consequence is confident (presented) punisher (meant to diminish the likelihood of engaging in that habit again).

• This would be deceit. Could cause moral problems

• What was fraudulent about this study's procedure?

Process cont: • Mr. Wallace strapped to a chair. • Electrodes and paste (to avoid blisters) applied. • A REAL 45 volt shock given to teacher for credibility (the JUST shock given in the experiment) • Shown generator • Teacher go through a series of expression pairs, the first expression pair was then repeated with a range of five correct answers. (blue-girl, nice-day, fat-neck). • For each and every mistake produced, a shock presented and shock absorbers proceeded in intensity. • Teacher was to announce the shock level each time.

Process cont: • Experimenter experienced scripted prods if the instructor did not when you go further or perhaps questioned going further, company but not impolite manner: – – – – – " Make sure you continue” or perhaps " Please go on”. " The experiment requires that you continue. ” " It is completely essential that you continue. ” " You have not any other choice, you must carry on. ” Also included: " Even though the shocks could possibly be painful, you cannot find any permanent tissue damage, so please continue. ”

• Mr. Wallace pounds fully on the wall structure at 300 volts • At 315v, stops pounding and gives no more answers. If learner does not respond, the...

03.09.2019

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